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10.10 VERBAL

1. The Statute on workplace safety requires that an employer should ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all full and part time employees, and also those not in direct employment who may be affected by acts or omissions at work. However, it is also the duty of employees to take reasonable care for their own health and safety and also that of other persons who may be affected by their acts or omissions at work, for example by complying with all notices on health and safety that are posted. If a workplace visitor is hurt due to an act of negligence by an employee then the employee may be held solely responsible. F An employer has responsibility for the safety of visitors to his factory. T Employees have negligible responsibility for workplace health and safety. F 2. Today’s historians aim to construct a record of human activities and to use this record to achieve a more profound understanding of humanity. This conception of their task is quite recent, dating from the development from 18th and early 19th centuries of scientific history, and cultivated largely by professional historians who adopted the assumption that the study of natural, inevitable human activity. Before the late 18th century, history was taught in virtually no schools, and it did not attempt to provide an interpretation of human life as a whole. This is more appropriately the function of religion, of philosophy, or even perhaps of poetry. That which constitutes the study of history has changed over time. C Professional historians did not exist before 18th century. C In the 17th century, history would not have been thought of as a way of understanding humanity. T 3. Whilst having similar effects on employees, there tend to be major difference between a merger and an acquisition. In an acquisition, power is substantially assumed by the new parent company. Change is often swift and brutal as the acquirer imposes its own control systems and financial restraints. Parties to a merger are likely to be evenly matched in terms of size, and the power and cultural dynamics of the combination are more ambiguous, integration is a more drawn out process. During an acquisition, there is often more overt conflict and resistance and a sense of powerlessness. In mergers, because of the prolonged period between the initial announcement and full integration, uncertainty and anxiety continue for a much longer time as the organization remains in a state of limbo. There tends to be a major power difference between parties in an acquisition. T Mergers and acquisition tend to have distinctly different impacts on employees. F

Mergers yield a shorter period of anxiety and uncertainty amongst employees. F 4. Management is, in effect, the catalyst that is essential for converting the resources and raw material inputs of the operation into valued outputs and, in the process, ensuring that stakeholder needs are satisfied. Managers represent the critical factor, which economists refer to as “enterprise”, without which the other factors (land, labor and capital) cannot function. Managers are effectively the custodians of the organization’s resource, responsible for deciding what the resources should be used for, how best to use them, and to which customers the outputs should be targeted. Stakeholder needs are best served through the creation of valued outputs. C Management has at least two major but different responsibilities. T Managers must decide how best to handle all the resources at their disposal. T 5. There is no doubt that vegetarian food can be healthier than a traditional diet – indeed, research has demonstrated that vegetarians are less likely to suffer from heart disease and obesity than those who eat meat. One long-standing concern about a vegetarian lifestyle is the risk of failing to take in enough protein. However, historical calculations as to the amount of protein needed for a healthy lifestyle have recently been shown to overestimate the quantities needed, and if vegetarian select their food carefully they should be able to meet their protein needs. A balanced diet is more likely to promote health than any particular food or food group in isolation. C Too much protein in the diet can lead to heart disease. C Over time the recommendations as to what constitutes a healthy balanced diet have changed. C 6. Human mortality, whilst consisting of unpredictable individual events, has a statistical regularity when averaged across a large group. This makes possible a whole host of products, of which the annuity is one. The price of an annuity paying a fixed regular income for life is based upon the statistical life expectancy of the purchaser at the time the annuity is to begin. The company selling the annuity will benefit from all those customers that die earlier than predicted, while customers are attracted by the prospect of guaranteed income for as long as they live. Annuities have the disadvantage that the capital invested is unrecoverable (i.e. upon the death of annuitant nothing is left for the heirs), but that fact also enables annuities to guarantee higher payments than could be obtained if the same sum of money were invested at interest. The heirs of a person who buy an annuity tend to be against the purchase. C

Essentially, the purchaser of an annuity is gambling that they will live long enough to receive a good return on their investment. T Annuity returns are generally similar to returns from investing the money in an interest bearing accounts. F 7. In casual language, the terms theory and model are often used interchangeably. From a technical point of view there is an important difference. Theories provide a general framework, but because of the generality of the specification, a theory cannot be shown to be useful or useless until it is fully specified in the form of a model. A model, on the other hand, needs by definition to be formulated within the concepts, along with a set of assumptions about the concepts and their relationships. The appropriateness of a model must then be evaluated with respect to a particular set of test data. The evaluation may be done by conducting a suitably designed set of empirical investigations, by rational inspection of the model assumptions in relation to the test data, or ideally both. In the strict sense, all models provide incomplete representations of the data to which they to fitted. Therefore the meaningful question is not whether a model is correct or incorrect, but rather whether the model fits the data well enough to be useful in guiding the process. Statistical evidence and judgment play important roles in answering that question. It is more meaningful to look at the practical utility of a model than its absolute veracity. T Most people fail to understand the difference between a theory and a model. T A model can exist in the absence of a theory. F Numerical 部分遇到的新题目是:题目是:If you buy two houses both in the capital and outside the capital at

100000 each at the beginning of year 1999, and if the price of the houses rises as the House Price Index, what is the price difference for the two houses at the beginning of year 2000? A,1182 B,4100,000 C,不记得了 D, 不记得了 E, no difference 答案应该选 A ((175/146)-(216-182))*100000